Under Antarctic Ice

In these Antarctic diving highlights by Paul A. Cziko, we bore through 2 to 6m (6 to 20ft) of sea ice to explore habitats where fishes and invertebrates interact with anchor ice that blankets the shallow seafloor, hollow ice stalactites (brine columns) drain salt from the maturing sea ice, and fishes must be fortified with special antifreeze proteins to survive the extreme low temperatures (-2°C / 28°F). The charismatic megafauna encountered here include Adélie and Emperor penguins, Weddell seals and the giant Antarctic toothfish. Footage and photos were acquired in association with scientific projects funded by the US National Science Foundation in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 2004-2015.

Ice Fish Don't Melt

A New York Times Science Take video (and story) highlighting my work. Natural antifreeze in the blood of Antarctic fish also keeps internal ice crystals from melting.